One crucial thing in shooting panoramas is to avoid parallax. When camera is mounted regularly on a tripod, it is mounted somewhat center-weighted. As the lens protrudes forth from the camera body, the viewpoint slightly changes as the camera is tilted and panned. This results in parallax-shift between overlapping objects between different shots, and ultimately in unsuccessful stitching of the panorama. Thus the camera has to be shifted backwards, so that the convergence-point of the rays are at the position of the tripod-axis, just before entering the lens. This can be achieved using so called panorama-rigs which shifts the camera backwards and moves the convergence of the rays to the so called “zero-parallax point”. This panorama-rigs can be pricey though, so you can also approach it from DIY point-of-view. Below are images of a simple Hangrip-rails with a supporting plate (quite optional though) at the cost of 50 euros.



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